Gradle Recipes for Android: Master the New Build System for Android
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In some cases, you may want to combine configurations from multiple product flavors. To do this, the Android plugin for Gradle allows you to create groups of product flavors, called flavor dimensions. The following code sample uses the flavorDimensions property to create a "mode" flavor dimension to group the "full" and "demo" product flavors, and an "api" flavor dimension to group product flavor configurations based on API level.
Gradle then combines product flavors from the "mode" dimension with those of the "api" dimension. You can filter build variants that you do not want using the variantFilter block in the module's build. The following sample code tells Gradle to not build any variants that combine the "minApi21" and "demo" product flavors:. To learn more about running local and integrated unit tests, read Test Your App. You can configure certain lint options using the lintOptions block in your module-level build.
You can change some of the settings for this node by either creating another manifest file in the test source set or configuring your module-level build. By default, all tests run against the debug build type. You can change this to another build type by using the testBuildType property in your module-level build. For example, if you want to run your tests against your "staging" build type, edit the file as shown in the following snippet. To specify options that change how Gradle runs all your tests, configure the testOptions block in the module-level build. To specify options for only local unit tests, configure the testOptions.
This section provides some configurations to help speed up your full and incremental builds. To learn more, read Optimize Your Build Speed. Android Studio uses R8, which consumes ProGuard rules files, to shrink your code. For new projects, Android Studio uses a default settings file proguard-android. For even more code shrinking, try the proguard-android-optimize.
To add rules that are specific to each build variant, configure additional proguardFiles property for each flavor. For example, the following sample adds flavor2-rules. Now the release version of "flavor2" uses all three rules files because those from the release block are also applied. Although Android Studio provides an easy way to configure signing for release builds from the UI, you can manually configure the signingConfigs block in your module's build.
By default, signing configurations are recorded in plain text to the module's build. If you are working with a team or an open-source project, you can move this sensitive information out of the build files by proceeding as follows. To learn more about app signing, read Sign Your App. At build time, Gradle generates the BuildConfig class so your app code can inspect information about the current build.
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You can also add custom fields to the BuildConfig class from your Gradle build configuration file using the buildConfigField method and access those values in your app's runtime code. Likewise, you can add app resource values with resValue. In some cases, you may need to declare the same property in both your manifest and your code for example, when declaring authorities for a FileProvider. Rather than updating the same property in multiple locations to reflect a change, define a single property in your module's build.
To learn more, read Inject Build Variables into the Manifest. Content and code samples on this page are subject to the licenses described in the Content License. Android Studio. Download What's new User guide Preview. Meet Android Studio. Manage your project.
About Dynamic Delivery. Write your app. Build and run your app. Run apps on the emulator. Run apps on a hardware device. Configure your build. Google also provides some helpful Gradle recipes , specific to Android. In your app's build. Here is what you should avoid:. Instead, make a gradle. That file is automatically imported by Gradle, so you can use it in build. Prefer Maven dependency resolution to importing jar files. If you explicitly include jar files in your project, they will be a specific frozen version, such as 2.
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Downloading jars and handling updates is cumbersome and is a problem that Maven already solves properly. Where possible, you should attempt to use Maven to resolve your dependencies, for example:. Avoid Maven dynamic dependency resolution Avoid the use of dynamic dependency versions, such as 2.
The use of static versions such as 2.
Use different package name for non-release builds Use applicationIdSuffix for debug build type to be able to install both debug and release apk on the same device do this also for custom build types, if you need any. This will be especially valuable after your app has been published.
Gradle recipes for Android :master the new build system for Android /Ken Kousen. – National Library
Use different icons to distinguish the builds installed on a device—for example with different colors or an overlaid "debug" label. You could also change app name per build type, as well as versionName as in the above example. It also simplifies the processing of working with some Android SDKs, such as Facebook, which require the registration of a single key store hash.
Unlike the release key file, the debug key file can safely be added to your repository.
Share code style formatting defintions Sharing the code style and formatting definitions via the app repository helps ensure a visually consistent code base and makes code comprehension and reviews easier. The recommended IDE for Android development is Android Studio because it is developed and constantly updated by Google, has good support for Gradle, contains a range of useful monitoring and analysis tools and is fully tailored for Android development.
Avoid adding Android Studio's specific configuration files, such as.
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Gson is another popular choice and being a smaller library than Jackson, you might prefer it to avoid 65k methods limitation. Also, if you are using. Moshi , another of Square's open source libraries, builds upon learnings from the development of Gson and also integrates well with Kotlin. Networking, caching, and images. There are a couple of battle-proven solutions for performing requests to backend servers, which you should use rather than implementing your own client. If you choose Retrofit, consider Picasso for loading and caching images.
Retrofit, Picasso and OkHttp are created by the same company, so they complement each other nicely and compatability issues are uncommon.
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Glide is another option for loading and caching images. It has support for animated GIFs, circular images and claims of better performance than Picasso, but also a bigger method count. RxJava is a library for Reactive Programming, in other words, handling asynchronous events. It is a powerful paradigm, but it also has a steep learning curve.
We recommend taking some caution before using this library to architect the entire application. We have written some blog posts on it:  ,  ,  , . For a reference app, our open source app Freesound Android makes extensive use of RxJava 2. If you have no previous experience with Rx, start by applying it only for responses from app's backend APIs. Alternatively, start by applying it for simple UI event handling, like click events or typing events on a search field. If you are confident in your Rx skills and want to apply it to the whole architecture, then write documentation on all the tricky parts.
Keep in mind that another programmer unfamiliar to RxJava might have a very hard time maintaining the project. Do your best to help them understand your code and also Rx. It helps keep your code tight and readable especially if you use a functional style, such as in RxJava.
Android Studio offers code assist support for Java 8 lambdas. If you are new to lambdas, just use the following to get started:. Note that from Android Studio 3.